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Reilly, James M. The Albumen & Salted Paper Book: The history and practice of photographic printing, 1840-1895. Light Impressions Corporation. Rochester, 1980.


Chapter One Basic Principles
Chapter Two Working Environment, Equipment and Materials
Chapter Three Salted Papers
Chapter Four Albumen Paper
Chapter Five Alternative and Hybrid Papers
Chapter Six Sensitization
Chapter Seven Tone Reproduction and Print Exposure
Chapter Eight Toning
Chapter Nine Fixation and Washing
Chapter Ten Finishing, Mounting and Storage
Chapter Eleven The Question of Permanence
Appendix A Suggestions for Further Reading
Appendix B Titration Method for Determining Strength of Silver Nitrate Solutions
Appendix C Some Guidelines for the Identification of Albumen and Salted Paper Prints
References for Illustrations

Chapter One:
Basic Principles 1
Printing with Silver Salts 1
Printing-Out Papers 1
Classification of Printing-Out Papers 2
Characteristics of Printing-Out Papers 3
Silver Chloride 3
The Role of Organic Binders 4
Relating Theory to Practice 5
Chapter Two:
Working Environment, Equipment and Materials 7
Work Areas 7
The "Wet" Area 7
The "Dry" Area, or Printing Room 8
Equipment 9
Laboratory Balance 9
Measuring and Mixing Containers 9
Trays 9
Printing Frames 10
Paper 11
Binder Materials Used in Printing Papers 12
Albumen 12
Gelatin 13
Starches 14
Resins 14
Chapter Three:
Salted Papers 15
Photographic Printing Before 1850 15
Plain Salted Paper 16
Floating the Paper on the Salting Solution 17
Contrast Control in Salted Papers 20
Arrowroot Papers 21
Preparation of Arrowroot Papers 22
Coating of Papers with Arrowroot Salting Solution 22
Resume of Processing Steps for Albumen and Salted Papers 23
Step 1 Initial Wash 23
Step 2 Toning 23
Step 3 Wash Before Fixing 24
Step 4 Fixing 24
Step 5 Wash Before Hypo Clearing Treatment 24
Step 6 Treatment with a Hypo Clearing Agent 25
Step 7 Final Wash 25
Step 8 Drying 25
Chapter Four:
Albumen Paper 27
The Early History of Albumen Paper 27
Invention of the Albumen Printing Process 28
Preparation of the Albumen Solution 34
Coating Paper with Albumen 36
Double Coating of Albumen Paper 39
Sensitizing Albumen Paper 40
Ammonia Fuming 40
Printing and Processing Albumen Paper 42
Toning Albumen Paper 43
Fixation, Washing and Drying of Albumen Paper 44
Chapter Five:
Alternative and Hybrid Papers 47
Resin Papers 50
Resin-Arrowroot Paper 50
Matte Albumen Paper 51
Preparation of Matte Albumen Paper 52
Chapter Six:
Sensitization 55
Composition of the Sensitizing Solution 56
Techniques of Sensitization 57
The Floatation Method of Sensitization 57
Brush Sensitization 58
Exhaustion of the Silver Solution 59
Decolorizing the Silver Solution 61
Preserving Sensitized Paper 62
Techniques for Preserving Sensitized Albumen and Salted Papers 63
Ammonia and Other Additives to the Silver Bath 64
Reclamation of Silver Wastes 64
Chapter Seven:
Tone Reproduction and Print Exposure 67
Characteristics Required in Negatives for Albumen and Salted Paper Printing 68
Effect of Binder Materials on Tone Reproduction 68
Using a Gray Scale to Measure Gradation and Contrast 69
Print Exposure 70
Effect of the Light Source on Print Contrast 72
Exposure Time 73
Some Precautions in Printing 73
A Note on Printing Historical Negatives 74
Chapter Eight:
Toning 75
History of Toning Methods 75
Heat Toning 75
Sulfur Toning 75
Gold Toning 76
Theory of Noble Metal Toning 78
The Practice of Gold Toning 79
Gold Chloride 79
Strength of the Gold Toning Solution 80
Gold Toner Formulae 80
Platinum Toning 81
History of Platinum Toning 81
The Practice of Platinum Toning 81
Chapter Nine:
Fixation and Washing 83
Theory of the Fixation Process 83
History of Fixation with Thiosulfates 84
Chemical Reactions Involved in Fixation 84
The Practice of Fixation 85
Fixer Exhaustion 85
Color Changes During Fixation 86
Washing of Prints 86
General Considerations 86
Washing Aids 87
Washing Conditions and Apparatus 87
Washing Time 88
Method for Washing Albumen and Salted Papers 89
Drying the Prints 89
Chapter Ten:
Finishing, Mounting and Storage 91
Preparing Prints for Display or Storage 91
History of the Finishing and Mounting of Albumen Prints 92
Mounting Adhesives Used in the 19th Century 93
Rolling Machines and Burnishers 94
A Contemporary Approach to Finishing, Display, and Storage 95
Matting Prints 96
Hinging Prints 96
A Conservator's Mounting Method 97
Summary of the Mounting Procedure 97
Step 1 Preparing the Starch Paste 97
Step 2 Preparing the Rigid Plexiglas™ Support 98
Step 3 Applying the Polyester Cloth Support 98
Step 4 Applying the Mounting Sheet 98
Step 5 Applying the Print 99
Step 6 Removing the Mounted Prints from the Temporary Supports 99
Print Storage 100
Temperature and Humidity Control 100
Chapter Eleven:
The Question of Permanence 101
Historical Review 102
The Era of Salted Papers 1840-1855 102
Introduction of Albumen Paper 1850-1860 103
Albumen Prints After 1860 104
Albumen Versus Emulsion-Type Printing-Out Papers 105
Highlight Yellowing in Albumen Prints 107
Causes of Highlight Yellowing in Albumen Prints 108
Assessing the Rate of Yellowing and Fading 109
Generalized Image Fading 110
Deterioration Caused by Defective Mounts and Mounting Adhesives 110
The Need for Restoration Research 110
Appendix A:
Suggestions for Further Reading 113
Surveys of the Technical History of Printing-Out Papers 113
Early Writings About Salted Papers 114
The Albumen Print 114
Matte Salted Papers 115
Appendix B:
Titration Method for Determining Strength of Silver Nitrate Solutions 117
Equipment 117
Chemicals 117
Process 117
Helpful Hints for the Titration Procedure 120
Appendix C:
Some Guidelines for the Identification of Albumen and Salted Paper Prints 121
Introduction 121
Guidelines 122
I. Is the Print a Silver Photographic Print? 122
II. Does the Print Display the Characteristic Colors of Albumen and Salted Paper Prints? 122
III. What Are the Surface Characteristics of the Print? 122
IV. Can the Image Be Dated From Internal Evidence? 123
V. Publications Which May Assist in Process Identification 124
References 125
References for Illustrations 131

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