SearchAbout This SiteTreatment ForumVideo clipsGalleryScienceLibraryTechnology

Reilly, James M. The Albumen & Salted Paper Book: The history and practice of photographic printing, 1840-1895. Light Impressions Corporation. Rochester, 1980.


References

Chapter One: Basic Principles

1. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), pp. v-vi.

Chapter Two: Working Environment, Equipment & Materials

1. Edward L. Wilson, Wilson's Photographics, pub. Edw. Wilson, New York (1881), p. 189.

2. J .M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), p. 110.

3. A. von Hübl, Der Silberdruck auf Salzpapier, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1896), p.31.

Chapter Three. Salted Papers

1. Thomas Sutton, "On Positive Printing, Etc. ," Photographic Journal, 2, 311(1856).

2. William Henry Fox Talbot, "Some Account of the Art of Photogenic Drawing, or the Process by which Natural Objects may be made to delineate themselves without the aid of the Artist's Pencil," The Athenaeum, No. 539 (Feb. 9, 1839), p. 114.

3. W.H. Fox Talbot, "An Account of the Processes employed in Photogenic Drawing," The Athenaeum, No. 539 (Feb. 23, 1839), p. 156.

4. Louis Alphonse Davanne and Jules Girard, Recherches Théoretiques et Pratiques sur la Formation des Épreuves Photographiques Positives, Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1864), p. 3.

5. Paul E. Liesegang, Der Silberdruck, E. Liesegang's Verlag, Düsseldorf (1884), pp. 12-13.

6. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), p. 185.

7. DeBrébisson, Horn's Photographic Journal, 2, 47 (1854).

Chapter Four: Albumen Paper

1. W.H. Sherman, "The Past and Future of the Albumen Print," in The American Annual of Photography and Photographic Times Almanac, Scovill & Adams, New York(1892), p. 25.

2. "H.L.," The Athenaeum, No. 602 (May 11, 1839), p. 358.

3. Robert Hunt, A Popular Treatise on the Art of Photography, Richard Griffin & Co., Glasgow(1841),p. 11.

4. J.M. Eder, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1887), 1st edition, p. 30.

5. Julius Schnauss, "Economical Process for Printing Positives," Photographic Mosaics, Benerman & Wilson, Philadelphia (1867), pp. 65-67. Taken from Photographisches Archiv (1886), p. 45.

6. Louis-Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, Compte Rendu Des Seances De L'Académie Des Sciences, 30(21), 665 (1850).

7. Die Photographische Industrie, 27, 116 (1929).

8. Liverpool Photographic Journal, 3, 25(1856). See also D. Van Monckhoven, Traité Général de Photographic, A Gaudin & Frére, Paris (1856), 2nd edition, p. 243.

9. Anthony's Photographic Bulletin, 21, 225 (1890). See also Edward L. Wilson, "Die Papierfabrik in Rives," Photographische Mittheilungen, 19, (1883).

10. Fritz Wentzel, Memoirs of a Photochemist, American Museum of Photography, Philadelphia(1960), pp. 51-52.

11. J.M. Eder, editor, Jahrbuch für Photographic, Kinematographie und Reproduktionsverfahren, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1905), p. 432.

12. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), p. 200.

13. Reese V. Jenkins, Images and Enterprise: Technology and the American Photographic Industry 1839 to 1925, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1975), p. 49.

14. Anthony's Photographic Bulletin, 21, 225 (1890).

15. British Journal of Photography, 36, 390 (1889).

16. Photographisches Archiv, 2, 57(1889).

17. J.M. Eder, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1887), p. 71.

18. F. Wilde, "The Permanency of Photographs--Silver, Carbon and Platinum," American journal of Photography, 12 (134), 51(1891).

19. Photographisches Archiv, 2, 57(1889).

20. Henry C. Stiefel, Sensitized Papers, How Made and Used, The Adams Press, New York(1894), p. 29.

21. Hermann W. Vogel, Handbook of the Practice and Art of Photography, Benerman &Wilson, Philadelphia(1875), 2nd edition, pp. 179-180.

Chapter Five: Alternative and Hybrid Papers

1. The British Journal of Photography Almanac and Photographer's Daily Companion, H. Greenwood & Co., London (1912), p. 1035.

2. Marcus Sparling, Theory and Practice of the Photographic Art, Houlston & Stoneman, London (1856), pp. 155-156.

3. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), pp. 192-194.

4. H. Snowden Ward, ed., The Figures, Facts and Formulae of Photography, Tennant & Ward, New York (1904), 3rd edition, pp. 74-75. See also A. von Hübl, Der Silberdruck auf Salzpapier, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1896), p. 71.

5. W.K. Burton and Andrew Pringle, The Processes of Pure Photography, Scovill & Adams, New York (1889), p. 138.

6. The Photographic Journal, 3, 40 (1856). See also J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle(1928), p. 187.

7. H.P. Robinson and William DeW. Abney, The Art and Practice of Silver Printing, E. & H.T. Anthony, New York(1881), pp. 100-102.

8. J.M. Eder, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1887), 1st edition, pp. 8-9.

9. George Shadbolt, "Some Observations on Positive Printing," Photographic Journal, 2, 256-257 (1855).

10. J.M. Eder, ed., Jahrbuch für Photographic und Reproduktionstechnik, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle(1891), p. 519.

11. J.M. Eder, ed., Jahrbuch für Photographic, Kinematographie und Reproduktionsverfahren, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1911), p. 529.

12. K. Kieser, Photographische Papiere, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Berlin (1931), pp. 45 7-458.

13. H.P. Robinson and William DeW. Abney, The Art and Practice of Silver Printing, E. & H.T. Anthony, New York (1881), p. 101.

14. A. von Hübl, Der Silberdruck auf Salzpapier, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1896), pp. 78-79.

15. J.M. Eder, ed., Jahrbuch für Photographic und Reproduktionstechnik, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle(1898), p.437.

16. Fritz Wentzel, Memoirs of a Photochemist, American Museum of Photography, Philadelphia (1960), p. 69.

17. Die Photographische lndustrie, 11, 802 (1913).

18. The British Journal Almanac and Photographer's Daily Companion, H. Longwood & Co., London (1912), p. 1035. See also Photo Gazette (Paris), April 27, 1909.

19. Die Photographische Industrie, 27, 116 (1929).

20. A. von Hübl, Der Silberdruck auf Salzpapier, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1896), pp. 82-83.

21. Die Photographische Industrie, 11, 503 (1913).

Chapter Six. Sensitization

1. C.A. Seely, "The Use of Acid in Silver Printing Solutions," The Photographic News, 3, (67), 173 (1860).

2. A. von Hübl, Der Silberdruck auf Salzpapier, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1896), p. 34.

3. "R . ," "Printing and Toning on Albumenised Paper," The Photographic News, 3 (70), 206 (1860).

4. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopriverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), p. 199.

5. The Photographic Times 2, 88 (1872). A sample print made on "ready-sensitized paper" accompanied this issue of the journal.

6. Josef Maria Eder, The History of Photography, trans. Edward Epstean, Columbia University Press, New York (1945), p. 534.

7. Charles W. Hearn, The Practical Printer, Benerman & Wilson, Philadelphia (1874), p. 24.

Chapter Seven: Tone Reproduction and Print Exposure

1. Thomas Bolas, Photographic Review, 1,219(1889).

2. A. von Hübl, Der Silberdruck auf Salzpapier, Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1896), p. 4.

3. Ibid., p. 5.

4. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), pp. 88-89.

Chapter Eight: Toning

1. Fitt, "On Positive Printing," Liverpool Photographic Journal, 3, 36 (1856).

2. Brian W. Coe, "Sun Pictures: Printing Talbot's Calotype Negatives," History of Photography, 1 (3), 180 (1977).

3. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), p. 8.

4. P. Mercier, Virages et Fixages, Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1892), p. 8.

5. Ibid., p.6.

6. P.F. Mathieu, Auto-Photographic ou Méthode De Reproduction Par La Lumière des Dessins, Lithographs, Gravures, etc., Sans L'Emploi Du Daguerréotype, Imprimerie De Bureau, Paris (1847), p. 14.

7. American Journal of Photography, 2, 270(1860).

8. "R .," "Printing and Toning on Albumenised Paper," The Photographic News, 3 (70), 205 (1860).

9. P. Mercier, Virages et Fixages, Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1892), p. 16.

10. Chapman Jones, "On the Relationship Between the Size of the Particle and the Colour of the Image," Photographic Journal, 51, 162 (1911).

11. E. Weyde, E. Klein and H.J. Metz, "Silver Deposition in the Diffusion Process," Journal of Photographic Science, 10, 112 (1962).

12. G. Mie, Annalen der Physik, 25, 377 (1908).

13. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), pp. 41-43.

14. Edward L. Wilson, Wilson's Photographics, pub. Edward L. Wilson, New York (1881), p. 202.

15. P. Mercier, Virages et Fixages, Gauthier-Villars, Paris (1892), p. 15.

16. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), pp. 63-64.

17. Ibid., p. 13.

18. Alfred Stieglitz, "Toning Aristo Prints with Platinum," American Annual of Photography and Photographic Times Almanac, Scovill & Adams, New York (1890), p. 120.

Chapter Nine. Fixation and Washing

1. A. Haddon and F.B. Grundy, "Strength of Hypo Solution and Times of Immersion for Fixing Albumenised Paper," British Journal of Photography, 44, 173 (1897).

2. Beaumont Newhall, Latent Image, Doubleday, New York (1967), p. 58.

3. G.I.P. Levenson, Theory of the Photographic Process, ed. T.H. James, MacMillan, New York(1977), p.439.

4. Ibid., p. 457.

5. J.M. Eder and Fritz Wentzel, Die photographischen Kopirverfahren mit Silbersalzen (Positiv-Prozess), Wilhelm Knapp, Halle (1928), p. 80.

6. L. P. Clerc, Photography, Theory and Practice, Pitman, New York (1939), 2nd edition, p. 346.

7. Walter Meidinger, Die Theoretischen Grundlagen der Photographischen Prozesse, Verlag von Julius Springer, Vienna (1932), p. 431.

8. J.I. Crabtree, G.T. Eaton and L.E. Muehler, Photographic Journal, 80, 458 (1940).

9. H.P. Robinson and William DeW. Abney, The Art and Practice of Silver Printing, E. & H.T. Anthony, New York(1881), p. 95.

10. F.B. Grundy and A. Haddon, "On the Amounts of Silver and Hypo Left in Albumenised Paper at Different Stages of Washing," British Journal of Photography, 40, 512 (1893).

Chapter Ten: Finishing, Mounting and Storage

1. Thomas F. Hardwich, Photographic Journal, 3,43(1856).

2. Edward L. Wilson, Wilson's Photographics, pub. Edward L. Wilson, New York (1881), p. 235.

3. Photographic Journal, 2, 252 (1855).

4. Paul E. Liesegang, Der Silberdruck, E. Liesegang's Verlag, Düsseldorf (1884), p. 59.

5. John Towler, The Silver Sunbeam, Joseph Ladd, New York (1864), p. 206.

6. Robert Howlett, On the Various Methods of Printing Photographic Pictures Upon Paper, Sampson, Low & Marston, London (1856), p. 32.

7. J.G. Tunny, in Wilson's Photographics, pub. Edward L. Wilson, New York(1881), p. 234.

8. Lucia C. Tang, "Determination of Iron and Copper in 18th and 19th Century Books by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy," Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 17, 19(1978).

9. Edith Weyde, "A Simple Test to Identify Gases Which Destroy Silver Images," Photographic Science and Engineering, 16 (4), 286 (1972).

Chapter Eleven: The Question of Permanence

1. Edgar Clifton, "The Last Print in Silver," British Journal of Photography Almanac and Photographer's Daily Companion, H. Greenwood & Co., London (1887), p.137.

2. Helmut and Alison Gernsheim, The History of Photography, McGraw-Hill, New York(1969), p. 175.

3. Nikolaas Henneman, Photographic Journal 3, 43 (1856). For a detailed account by Thomas Malone of the making of The Pencil of Nature prints, see The Liverpool and Manchester Photographic Journal, 1, 270 (1857).

4. T.F. Hardwich, Photographic Journal, 2, 242 (1855).

5. Photographic Journal, 2, 251 (1855).

6. Alphonse Davanne and Jules Girard, Photographic journal, 2, 202 (1855), from Bulletin De La Société De Photographie, June 1855.

7. Ralph E. Liesegang, Photographische Physik, E. Liesegang's Verlag, Düsseldorf (1899), p. 36. See also British Journal of Photography, 26, 2 (1879).

8. W.H. Sherman, "The Past and Future of Albumen Print," American Annual of Photography and The Photographic Times Almanac, Scovill & Adams, New York (1892), p. 23.

9. Reese V. Jenkins, Images and Enterprise: Technology and The American Photographic Industry 1839-1925, John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1975), pp. 90-95.

129

10. Alphonse Davanne and Jules Girard, Bulletin De La Société Francaise De Photographie, 5, 347 (1859).

11. Alphonse Davanne and Jules Girard, "General Observations on Photographic Positives;" The Photographic News, 3, 233 (1860).

12. Matthew Carey Lea, "An Examination Into the Circumstances Under Which Silver is Found in the Whites of Albumen Prints," The Photographic News, 10, 394-395 (1866) and 10, 402-403 (1866).

13. John Spiller, quoted by A. Haddon and F.B. Grundy in British Journal of Photography, 40, 511-512 (1893).

14. F.B. Grundy and A. Haddon, "On the Amounts of Silver and Hypo Left in Albumenised Paper at Different Stages of Washing," British Journal of Photography, 40, 512 (1893).

15. British Journal of Photography, 40, 511-5 12 (1893), 41, 788-789 (1894), and 43, 468-469 (1896).

Appendix A: Further Reading

1. Henry Morley and W.H. Wills, "Photography," Household Words, New Series 1 (28), 57 (1853). Authorship of this unsigned article was ascribed to Morley and Wills by R.D. Wood in the 1975 pamphlet, The Calotype Patent Lawsuit of Talbot vs. Laroche 1854, p. 28.


Home ~ Library ~ Science ~ Technology ~ Gallery ~ Video ~ Forum ~ About ~ Search