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Towler, John. The Silver Sunbeam. Joseph H. Ladd, New York: 1864. Electronic edition prepared from facsimile edition of Morgan and Morgan, Inc., Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. Second printing, Feb. 1974. ISBN 871000-005-9

The Silver Sunbeam - Contents

THE SILVER SUNBEAM:
CHAPTER I. HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY.
Notes
CHAPTER II. PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS.
LIST OF A PHOTOGRAPHIC OUTFIT.
CHAPTER III. SPECIALTIES IN REFERENCE TO THE ARTICLES IN THE PRECEDING CHAPTER-THE GLASS-HOUSE, ETC.
CHAPTER IV. SPECIALTIES CONTINUED.--THE CAMERA AND LENS.
CHAPTER V. SPECIALTIES CONTINUED.--THE CAMERA.
Notes
CHAPTER VI. SPECIALTIES CONTINUED.--DARK-ROOM.
WORK-ROOM.
CHAPTER VII. COLLODION.
CHAPTER VIII. ETHER AND ALCOHOL.
ETHER.
CHAPTER IX. COLLODION SENSITIZERS--IODIDES AND BROMIDES
CHAPTER X. PREPARATION OF THE IODIDES. chap
Iodine.
Properties.
Preparation of Hydriodic Acid.
Iodide of Barium.
Iodide of Calcium.
Iodide of Lithium.
Iodide of Potassium.
Iodide of Sodium and Iodide of Ammonium.
Iodide of Cadmium.
Impurities of the Iodides.
Tests of the Purity of the Iodides.
CHAPTER XI. BROMINE.
Preparation of Bromine.
Hydrobromic Acid.
Bromides.
Preparation of the Chlorides.
Preparation.
Properties.
Chloride of Lime, Chlorinetted Lime, etc.
CHAPTER XII. NORMAL OR, PLAIN COLLODION, IODIZED COLLODION, BROMO-IODIZED COLLODION.
CHAPTER XIII. SILVER-SALTS OF SILVER.
Silver.
Properties.
Photographic Properties of the Nitrate of Silver.
Preparation of other Salts of Silver.
Photographic Properties of Chloride of Silver.
CHAPTER XIV. REDUCING AGENTS-DEVELOPERS.
Iron Developer.
Nitrate of the Protoxide of Iron.
Sulphate of the Protoxide of Iron.
Double Sulphate of Iron and Ammonia.
Preparation.
Sulphide of Iron.
Preparation.
Tannic Acid-Gallic Acid-Pyrogallic Acid.
Preparation of Tannic Acid.
Preparation of Gallic Acid.
Preparation of Pyrogallic Acid.
Acids in Developing Solutions.
Acetic Acid.
Formic Acid.
Photographic Uses of Formic Acid.
Citric Acid.
Preparation.
Citrate of Soda.
Photographic Uses of Citric Acid.
Tartaric Acid.
Preparation of Tartaric Acid.
CHAPTER XV. THE NITRATE OF SILVER BATH.
Preparation of the Sensitizing Solution.
CHAPTER XVI. THE DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS.
Sulphate of Iron Developer.
CHAPTER XVII. FIXING SOLUTIONS.
Cyanogen.
Preparation of Cyanogen.
Hydrocyanic Acid-Prussic Acid.
Cyanide of Potassium.
Sulphocyanide of Potassium.
Sulphocyanide of Ammonium.
Hydrosulphocyanic Acid.
Hyposulphite of Soda.
CHAPTER XVIII. INTENSIFIERS.
Preparation of Bichloride of Mercury--Corrosive Sublimate.
Preparation of Sulphide of Potassium.--Hepar Sulphuris.
Preparation of Sulphide o f Ammonium.
Notes
CHAPTER XIX. WET COLLODION PROCESS.
Collodion Positives--The Melainotype--The Ambrotype.
Ambrotype.
First Subdivision. Preparing the Glass.
Second Subdivision.
Third Subdivision.
Fourth Subdivision.
Fifth Subdivision.
Sixth Subdivision.--Fixing Solution.
Remedy for Fogginess.
Seventh Operation.
Eighth Operation.
Ninth Operation.
Tenth Operation.
Formula.
CHAPTER XX. ALABASTRINE POSITIVES.
CHAPTER XXI. MELAINOTYPE-FERROTYPE.
Operation.
CHAPTER XXII. COLLODION NEGATIVES.
Negative Developers.
Fixing Solutions for Negatives.
Intensifying or Redeveloping Process.
Depositing Operation.
Intensifying Operation.
CHAPTER XXIII. TRANSFER PROCESS OF COLLODION POSITIVES ON JAPANNED LEATHER, LINEN, PAPER, ETC.
CHAPTER XXIV. COLLODION POSITIVES ON GLASS BY TRANSMITTED LIGHT.
Transparent Positives.
CHAPTER XXV. ENLARGEMENT OF NEGATIVES BY THE ORDINARY CAMERA.
Reflectors used as Condensers of Light.
CHAPTER XXVI. TRANSPARENT POSITIVES BY CONTACT BY THE WET PROCESS.
CHAPTER XXVII. COLLODION NEGATIVES OR POSITIVES COPIED FROM COLLODION OR PAPER POSITIVES.
CHAPTER XXVIII. STEREOGRAPHIC NEGATIVES AND LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHY.
Instantaneous Stereographs.
Instantaneous Process of Lieutenant-Colonel Stuart Mortley.
Intensifier.
Instantaneous Shutters.
CHAPTER XXIX. NEGATIVES ON PAPER.
The Talbotype or Calotype Process.
To Sensitize Calotype Taper.
Fixing of the Negative.
Wax-Paper Process of Legray
Waxing of the Paper.
Iodizing of the Paper.
Sensitization of the Paper.
Exposure to the View, etc.
Development of the Image.
Fixing of the Image.
Geoffray's Process with Cerolein for taking Paper Negatives.
Turpentine and Wax Process of Tillard.
Wet-Paper Negative Process of Humbert de Molard.
Improved Calotype Process by Prichard.
CHAPTER XXX. POSITIVE PRINTING.
Printing on Plain Paper, on Albumenized Paper, or Arrow-Root Paper.
Description of the Materials used in Positive Printing.
Albumen.
Gelatine.
Amylaceous or Non-Azotized Substances.
Starch.
Gum-Arabic.
Chloride of Gold.
Nitrate of Uranium.
Acetate of Soda-Citrate of Soda,-Phosphate of Soda.
Carbonate of Soda.
Carbonate of Lime.
CHAPTER XXXI. MANIPULATION OF POSITIVE PRINTING.
Preparation of Salted Paper.
Plain Salted Paper.
Preparation of Albumenized Paper.
Preparation of Arrow-Root Paper.
Sensitizing Bath.
Fuminating Process.
CHAPTER XXXII. THE PRINTING OF SENSITIZED PAPER.
Toning of the Prints.
Self-Acting Photographic Washing-Machine
Mounting of Photographs.
What to do with the Clippings of Prints.
Mounting Stereographs.
CHAPTER XXXIII. BERTRAND'S NEW PROCESS FOR POSITIVE PRINTING.
Glover's Resinized Printing Process.
CHAPTER XXXIV. PRINTING BY DEVELOPMENT.
Method of Sensitizing by Means of Nitrate of Uranium. (The Process of Niepce de Saint Victor.)
CHAPTER XXXV. THE CARD-PICTURE.
Lenses for the Card-Picture.
Development.
Fixing.
Printing of Card-Pictures.
Vignette Printing.
Toning, Fixing, and Mounting.
On the Tinting and Coloring of Photographs.
The Colors used most frequently.
Other Indispensable Articles.
Coloring of a Portrait.
Coloring the Face.
Blonde Hair.
Chestnut-Colored Hair.
Black Hair.
Gray hair.
Red hair.
White Hair.
Drapery.
Blue Drapery.
Green Drapery.
Iced Drapery.
Rose-Colored Drapery.
Brown Drapery.
Pink Drapery.
White Drapery.
Yellow Drapery.
Pearl Gray.
Violet.
Background.
How to Imitate Metals, etc., with Color.
CHAPTER XXXVI. DRY COLLODION PROCESS--DRY PROCESSES.
The Albumen Process.
Drying Process.
Sensitizing the Film.
Exposure in the camera.
Development of the Image.
Taupenot Process--Collodio-Albumen Process.
Preparation of the Glass Plates.
Exposure.
Development of the Image.
Modified Albumen Process. (By James Larpey.)
Sensitizing Solution.
Exposure.
Developer.
Fixing.
Modified Collodio-Albumen Process. (By James Mudd.)
Sensitizing Solution.
Development.
Fothergill Process.
Developing Solution.
CHAPTER XXXVII. DR. HILL NORRIS'S PROCESS--GELATINE PROCESS.
Tannin Process of Major Russell.
Gelatine Operation.
Collodion for the Tannin Process.
Preservative Solution of Tannin.
The Tannin and Honey Process.
Resin Process.
Sutton's Rapid Dry Process.
Keene's Rapid Dry Process.
CHAPTER XXXVIII PRINTING OF TRANSPARENT POSITIVES BY THE DRY PROCESS.
To take Copies of any given size.
Application of the Preceding Table.
Microphotography and Macrophotography.
Solar Microscope.
How to find the point where the Lens is to be placed.
Macrophotography, or the Art of Taking Enlarged Photographs. The Negative for Enlargement.
The Quality of the Negative.
Development.
Microphotography, or the Art of taking Diminished Copies of Photographs, or Photographs of Microscopic Object's.
CHAPTER XXXIX. THE DAGUERREOTYPE.
First Operation, or the Cleaning and Polishing of the Shivered Plates.
Second Operation, or the Sensitizing of the Silver Plate.
Third Operation, or the Exposure to Light.
Fourth Operation, or Developing by the Vapor of Mercury.
Fifth Operation, or the Fixing of the Developed Image.
Sixth Operation, or the Toning with Gold.
CHAPTER XL. PRINTING WITHOUT THE SALTS OF SILVER.
Process with the Salts of Iron.
Process with the Salts of Uranium.
Process for Red Pictures.
Process for Green Pictures.
Process for Violet Pictures.
Process for Blue Pictures.
Carbon Process.
Pouncy's Process.
Pouncy's New Carbon Process.
Processes of Salmon and Garnier.
Fargier's Process.
Carbon Processes with the Salts of Iron
No. 1.-Process with Sesquichloride. of Iron and Tartaric Acid.
To transfer the Carbon Print from Glass to Paper.
Printing directly on Paper by means of the Sesquichloride of Iron and Tartaric Acid.
Photographic Engraving.
Engraving on the Daguerreotype Plate.
Process of Fizeau.
Process of Talbot.
Asphaltotype of Nicéphore Niepce.
Preparation of the Plate.
Flowing of the Varnish
Exposure of the Plate.
Development of the Image.
Washing of the Plate.
Fumigation of the Plates.
Application of the Aqua-Tinta Granulation.
Etching of the Plate.
Etching on Glass.
Négre's Process for Heliographic Engraving.
Copies for the Engraver to work from.
Photo-lithography and Photo-zincography.
Asphalto-photolithographic Process.
Bichromo photo-lithographic Processes of Poitevin.
Photo-typographic Process of Poitevin.
Photo-lithographic Process of Newton.
Photo-zincography by Colonel Sir H. James, R.E.; and Photo-lithography by Mr. Osborne.
Quality of the Paper used in the Transfer Process.
Coating of the Paper with the Sensitive Solution.
Exposure under the Negative.
The Inking o f the Bichromate Print.
The Cleaning of the Surface of the Print.
Transference of the Print to Zinc or Stone.
Etching of the Zinc.
Photo-papyrography by Colonel Sir H. James, R.E.
On the production of Photographs, etc., on Glass in Enamel Colors by Joubert.
CHAPTER XLI. STEREOSCOPICITY.
Strabonic Stereograph.
CHAPTER XLII. CELESTIAL PHOTOGRAPHY.
CHAPTER XLIII. HELIOCHROMY, OR THE ART OF TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS IN NATURAL COLORS.
CHAPTER XLIV. IMPERFECTIONS IN COLLODION NEGATIVES AND POSITIVES, AND THEIR REMEDIES.
Spots and Apertures.
Transparent Spots.
Ridges and Undulating Lines.
Streaks and Stains.
Feebleness of the Image, or de deficiency of Contrast.
Harshness, or Excess of Contrast.
Imperfect Definition.
Solarization.
Tender and Rotten Films
Imperfections in Paper Prints.
Defects in the Paper.
Imperfect Albumenizing and Salting.
Defective Sensitizing.
Defects in the Printing or in the Negative.
Imperfect Washing previous to Toning.
Defective Toning.
Defective Fixing.
Mealiness on the Print.
CHAPTER XLV. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
Comparison of Weights and Measures. Apothecaries' Weight.
Symbols.
Apothecaries' Measure of Capacity. (United States.)
Avoirdupois Weight.
Apothecaries' grains.
Weight of Water at 62° and Capacity of:
French Measures of Length.
French Weights
CHAPTER XLVI. COMPARISON OF THERMOMETRIC INDICATIONS ON THE PRINCIPAL THERMOMETERS IN USE.
CHAPTER XLVII. COMPARISON ON HYDROMETRIC AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY INDICATION'S.
For Liquids Heavier than Water. Baumé.
For Liquids Lighter than Water. Baumé
Twaddell's Hydrometer.
CHAPTER XLVIII. TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS OF MATTER, WITH THEIR SYMBOLS AND CHEMICAL EQUIVALENTS.

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