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Towler, John. The Silver Sunbeam. Joseph H. Ladd, New York: 1864. Electronic edition prepared from facsimile edition of Morgan and Morgan, Inc., Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. Second printing, Feb. 1974. ISBN 871000-005-9

Chapter XLVII.
COMPARISON ON HYDROMETRIC AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY INDICATIONS.

THE specific gravity of a body is the comparison of the weight of a given balk of the said substance with that of an equal bulk of distilled water at 62° Fahrenheit. Gases are compared either with air as the standard or with distilled water.

The specific gravity of a body is taken by special instruments for this purpose; some of these instruments are denominated Hydrometers, and give arbitrary indications, which have to be reduced afterward in terms of specific gravity.

Baumé's Hydrometers axe in extensive use in France, and Twaddell's Hydrometer in England. Baumé has two Hydrometers: one for liquids heavier than water, and one for liquids lighter than water.

For Liquids Heavier than Water. Baumé.

Deg Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav. Deg. Sp. Grav.
0 1.000 20 1.152 40 1.357 60 1.652
1 1.007 21 1.160 41 1.369 61 1.670
2 1.013 22 1.169 42 1.381 62 1.689
3 1.020 23 1.178 43 1.395 63 1.708
4 1.027 24 1.188 44 1.407 64 1.727
5 1.034 25 1.197 45 1.420 65 1.747
6 1.041 26 1.206 46 1.434 66 1.767
7 1.048 27 1.216 47 1.448 67 1.788
8 1.056 28 1.225 48 1.462 68 1.809
9 1.063 29 1.235 49 1.476 69 1.831
10 1.070 30 1.245 50 1.490 70 1.854
11 1.078 31 1.256 51 1.505 71 1.877
12 1.085 32 1.267 52 1.520 72 1.900
13 1.094 33 1.277 53 1.535 73 1.924
14 1.101 34 1.288 54 1.551 74 1.949
15 1.109 35 1.299 55 1.567 75 1.974
16 1.118 36 1.310 56 1.583 76 2.000
17 1.126 37 1.321 57 1.600    
18 1.134 38 1.333 58 1.617    
19 1.143 39 1.345 59 1.634    

For Liquids Lighter than Water. Baumé

Deg Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav. Deg. Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav.
10 1.000 23 0.918 36 0.849 49 0.789
11 .993 24 0.913 37 0.844 50 0.785
12 0.987 25 0.907 38 0.839 51 0.781
13 0.980 26 0.901 39 0.834 52 0.777
14 0.973 27 0.896 40 0.830 53 0.773
15 0.967 28 0.890 41 0.825 54 0.768
16 0.960 29 0.885 42 0.820 55 0.764
17 0.954 30 0.880 43 0.816 56 0.760
18 0.948 31 0.874 44 0.811 57 0.757
19 0.942 32 0.869 45 0.807 58 0.753
20 D.936 33 0.864 46 0.802 59 0.749
21 0.930 34 0.859 47 0.798 60 0.745
22 0.924 35 0.854 48 0.794 61 0.741

Twaddell's Hydrometer.

The degrees on Twaddell are converted into equivalent specific gravities by multiplying them by 5 and adding 1000; then mark off then mark off three figures as decimals.

Deg Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav. Deg Sp. Grav.
1 1.005 8 1.040 15 1.075 22 1.110
2 1.010 9 1.045 16 1.080 23 1.115
3 1.015 10 1.050 17 1.085 24 1.120
4 1.020 11 1.055 18 1.090 25 1.125
5 1.025 12 1.060 19 1.095 26 1.130
6 1.030 13 1.065 20 1.100 27 1.135
7 1.035 14 1.070 21 1.105 28 1.140


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