Towler, John. The Silver Sunbeam.
Joseph H. Ladd, New York: 1864. Electronic edition prepared from
facsimile edition of Morgan and Morgan, Inc., HastingsonHudson,
New York. Second printing, Feb. 1974. ISBN 8710000059
Chapter XLV.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.
WEIGHTS and capacities in England and France are estimated from
certain standard linear measurements. In England, a pendulum
vibrating seconds of time in a vacuum, at the latitude of London,
and at the level of the sea, is assumed as the standard of linear
dimensions; it is 39.1393 inches. This is the standard, too, of all
our measurement of length, capacity, and weight in the United
States. But, like the English, we retain all the old and arbitrary
systems of weights and measures; whereas the French have assumed. a
decimal system in all their measurements that merits the highest
praise and imitation. The linear standard of the French, from which
they derive all other measurements, is called a métre.
It is the tenmillionth part of a quarter of the earth's meridian,
and measures 39.371 inches. The métre is divisible
decimally in both directions.
The connecting link between the English linear unit and their
measures of capacity and weight are as follows:
A cubic inch of distilled water weighed in air with brass weights
at a temperature of 62° Fahr., the barometer standing at 30
inches, is equal to two hundred and fiftytwo grains and four
hundred and fiftyeight one thousandth parts of a grain; of such
grains 5760 are required to make the imperial standard troy or
apothecaries; pound; and 7000 of such grains make the commercial or
avoirdupois pound. The imperial gallon has a capacity of 277.274
cubic inches; and a gallon of distilled water, as above, weighs 10
pounds avoirdupois, or 70,000 grains.
The connecting link between the French linear unit and their
measures of weight and capacity, are as follows
A cubic centimétre of distilled water, at its maximum
density, at the temperature of 39.5° Fahrenheit, is the unit of
weights and is called a gramme, which is divided decimally
above and below.
A cubic decimétre is called a litre, which is the
unit of the measures of capacity, and divisible decimally.
Comparison of Weights and Measures.
Apothecaries' Weight.

French gramme. 

1 grain 
= 
0.0647 
20 grains 
= 


1 scruple 
= 
1.295 
60 grains 
= 
3 scruples 
= 
1 drachm 
= 
3.885 
480 grains 
= 
8 drachms 
= 
1 ounce 
= 
31.08 
5760 grains 
= 
12 ounces 
= 
1 pound 
= 
372.96 
Symbols.
grain=gr. scruple=. drachm=. ounce=. pound=lb
Apothecaries' Measure of Capacity.
(United States.)
60 minims 
= 


1 fluid drachm 
480 minims 
= 
8 fluid drachms 
= 
1 fluid ounce. 
7680 minims 
= 
16 fluid ounces 
= 
1 pint. 
61,440 minims 
= 
8 pints 
= 
1 gallon. 
Avoirdupois Weight.

French gramme. 

1 drachm 
= 
1.77 
16 drachms 
= 
1 ounce 
= 
28.328 
16 ounces 
= 
1 pound 
= 
453.25 
112 pounds 
= 
1 hundred weight 


20 hundred weight 
= 
1 ton 


Apothecaries' grains.
1 drachm 
= 
27.34375 
1 ounce 
= 
437.5 
1 pound 
= 
7000 
1 hundred weight 
= 
784000 
1 ton. 
= 
15680000 
Apothecaries' ounce 
= 
480 grains 

Avoirdupois ounce 
= 
437.5 grains 

United States pint 
= 
16 fluid ounces 

Imperial or British pint 

20 fluid ounces 

United States gallon 
= 
128 fluid ounces 
= 
8 pounds avoirdupois. 
Imperial or British gallon 
= 
160 fluid ounces 
= 
10 pounds avoirdupois 
Weight of Water at 62° and
Capacity of:

Cubic inches.. 

Grains 
1 gallon (Imperial) 
= 
277.274 
= 
70000. 
1 gallon (U. S.) 
= 
231.000 
= 
56000. 
1 quart (Imperial) 
= 
69.318 
= 
17500. 
1 quart (U. S.) 
= 
57.750 
= 
14000 
1 pint (Imperial) 
= 
34.659 
= 
8750 
1 pint (U. S.) 
= 
28.875 
= 
7000. 
16 fluid ounces 
= 
28.875 
= 
7000. 
1 fluid ounce 
= 
1.732 
= 
437.5 
1 fluid drachm 
= 
0.216 
= 
54.7 
1 minim 
= 
0.0336 
= 
0.91 
French Measures of Length.

English. inches. 
Millimétre 
= 
.03937 
Centimètre 
= 
.39371 
Decimétre 
= 
3.93708 
Métre 
= 
39.37079 
Décamétre 
= 
393.70788 
Hectométre 
= 
3937.0788 
Kilométre 
= 
39370.788 
Myriamétre 
= 
393707.88 
French Weights

Equivalents in
Grains. 
Milligramme, 
.0154 
Centigramme, 
.1543 
Decigramme, 
1.5434 
Gramme, 
15.434 
Decagramme, 
154.340 
Hectogramme, 
1543.402 
Kilogramme, 
15434.023 
Myriogramme, 
154340.234 
A gramme of water=1 cubic centimétre=15.43 grains=17
minims.
1000 grammes of water=1 litre=1 kilogramme=15434.023 grains=2 lb.
3.27 oz.

French Liquid Measures. Cubic
inches. 
United States Liquid
Measures. 
Millilitre, 
.0610 
16.2318 minims. 
Centilitre, 
.6103 
2.7052 fl. drachms. 
Decilitre, 
6.1028 
3.3816 fl. ounces. 
Litre, 
61.028 
2.1135 pints. 
Decalitre, 
610.280 
2.6419 gallons. 
Hectolitre, 
6102.80 
26.4190 gallons 
Kilolitre, 
61028.0 
264.1900 gallons 
Myrialitre, 
610280 
2641.9000 gallons 
